7 Important Agricultural Land Measurement Units in India

A Guide to Agricultural Land Measurement Units

Land measurement is a crucial aspect of agriculture in India. Accurate measurement ensures efficient land utilization, effective planning and proper resource allocation. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide to agricultural land measurement units in India, shedding light on common unit and measurement, state-specific units, the importance of standardization and the tools and techniques used in land measurement.

Common Land Measurement Units in India

Agricultural Land Measurement Units

Here are the 7 commonly used Agricultural land measurement units widely used across India.

  1. Bigha
  2. Acre
  3. Hectare
  4. Square Meter
  5. Guntha
  6. Katha
  7. Cent

Bigha: Bigha is a land measurement unit commonly used in India, particularly in rural areas. It is typically used to measure agricultural land. However, it’s important to note that the size of a bigha can vary across different states in India, and even within different regions of the same state. The actual area covered by a bigha can range from one region to another. For instance, in Uttar Pradesh, one bigha is approximately equal to 20,000 square feet, while in West Bengal, it is around 14,400 square feet. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the local context and specific conversions when dealing with land measurements in bigha.

Acre: The acre is one of the most widely recognized land measurement units in India. It is equivalent to 43,560 square feet or approximately 4,840 square yards. The acre is commonly used for agricultural, residential and commercial land measurements. It provides a convenient measurement for larger plots of land.

Hectare: The hectare is an internationally recognized land measurement unit and is increasingly used in India. It is equivalent to 2.471 acres or 10,000 square meters. The hectare is commonly used in scientific research, government records and larger agricultural operations. It provides a standardized unit for land measurement and facilitates comparisons on a global scale.

Square Meter: The square meter is the standard unit of land measurement in the metric system. It is gaining popularity, especially in urban areas of India. One square meter is equal to 10.764 square feet. The square meter is used for precise measurements, smaller land areas and in official documentation where metric units are preferred.

Guntha: The Guntha is a land measurement unit primarily used in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Gujarat. It is equivalent to 1,089 square feet or 121 square yards. The guntha is commonly used for smaller agricultural plots or residential land measurement in these states.

Katha: The katha is a land measurement unit used in various states, including Bihar, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. The size of a katha can vary across different regions. In some areas, one katha is equal to 720 square feet, while in others, it can be around 1,366 square feet. The katha is primarily used for measuring land area in residential or small agricultural plots.

Cent: The cent is a land measurement unit predominantly used in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. It is equivalent to 435.6 square feet or 48.4 square yards. The cent is commonly used for measuring land in residential areas or smaller agricultural plots in these states.

Understanding these common land measurement units is essential for farmers, landowners and anyone involved in real estate or agriculture in India. By familiarizing themselves with these units, individuals can accurately measure and communicate land area, facilitating transactions, planning, and resource management.

State-Specific Land Measurement Units

In addition to the common units, several states in India use their own land measurement units. Some of these units may be used in multiple states, while others are specific to certain regions. Here are some example: Biswa, Biswansi, Biswai, Kattha, Dhur, Marla, Chatak, Ankanam, Kanal, Ground, Gunte, Pao, Vigha, Ropani.

Here is a comprehensive list of state-specific land measurement units in India for each state:

State NameLand Measurement Units
Andhra PradeshAcre, Cent, Gunta
Arunachal PradeshBigha, Katha, Lecha
AssamBigha, Katha, Lecha, Dhur
BiharKattha, Dhur, Bigha
ChhattisgarhAcre, Bigha, Biswa, Kattha, Dhur
GoaAcre, Cent, Pao, Square Meter
GujaratBigha, Guntha, Acre, Vigha
HaryanaAcre, Kanal, Marla
Himachal PradeshBigha, Biswa, Biswansi, Biswai
JharkhandAcre, Dhur, Kattha, Ropani
KarnatakaGuntha, Acre, Hectare, Gunte
KeralaCent, Acre, Ankanam
Madhya PradeshAcre, Hectare, Bigha, Kattha, Dhur
MaharashtraGuntha, Acre, Hectare, Vigha
ManipurBigha, Katha, Lecha, Dhur
MeghalayaBigha, Katha, Lecha, Dhur
MizoramBigha, Katha, Lecha, Dhur
NagalandBigha, Katha, Lecha, Dhur
OdishaAcre, Guntha, Decimal, Cent
PunjabAcre, Kanal, Marla
RajasthanBigha, Biswa, Biswansi, Biswai
SikkimAcre, Kattha, Dhur
Tamil NaduCent, Ground, Acre, Ankanam
TelanganaAcre, Cent, Gunta
TripuraBigha, Katha, Lecha, Dhur
Uttar PradeshBigha, Biswa, Kattha, Decimal
UttarakhandBigha, Biswa, Kattha, Decimal
West BengalBigha, Chatak, Katha, Decimal
State-Specific Land Measurement Units in India

Importance of Standardization in Land Measurement

Land measurement is crucial for land management in agriculture, real estate, and urban planning. Standardization of measurement units ensures clarity, consistency, and fairness. It prevents disputes and confusion in transactions and comparisons. The government promotes uniformity nationwide, facilitating accurate communication, fair valuation, and efficient land use planning. Standardization fosters economic efficiency, legal certainty, and transparent governance. It supports sustainable development and informed decision-making, benefiting all stakeholders.

Tools and Techniques for Land Measurement

Traditionally, land measurement was done using ropes, chains and measuring sticks. However, modern technology has introduced more accurate and efficient methods. Global Positioning System (GPS) devices, satellite imagery and digital mapping tools like Mapulator app are now commonly used for precise land measurement.

Mapulator app is simple land measurement app which is effective to measure land area using mobile device. Mapulator supports different plotting techniques for land area calculation. It supports various area conversion units. Doing manual measurement units conversion is difficult but with Mapulator you can do it without hassle.


Understanding land unit and measurement is crucial for farmers, landowners and anyone involved in agriculture in India. By familiarizing themselves with common units, conversion factors, state-specific units, and the importance of standardization, individuals can make informed decisions regarding land transactions, resource management, and planning. Furthermore, adopting modern tools like Mapulator app and various techniques can improve accuracy and efficiency in land measurement, leading to better agricultural practices and outcomes.